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Other Sub-Saharan Countries

Angola

Petroleum: Angola produces and exports more oil than any other Sub-Saharan nation, 45% of the GDP comes from oil production which makes up 90% of its exports. Sonangol Group, a government owned conglomerate controls this production. Mining companies such as Chevron Corporation, Elf Oil, Texaco, ExxonMobil, Agip, Petrobras and British Petroleum, all operate in Angola.

Mining: Angola is Africa’s third largest producer of diamonds; its national diamond company is called Endiama. The human rights violations, corruption and smuggling that mar the industry remain a deterrent to foreign investment. The country is also rich in iron ore but the infrastructure of this industry, decimated in the civil war, has had to be redeveloped. Other minerals include phosphates, feldspar, gypsum, talc, sulpher, mica, copper, uranium, kaolin, manganese, gold and quartz. Valuable rock forms like bauxite, granite and marble are found here too.

Agriculture: Angola has not yet returned to its pre-independence success in this sector. Once having produced enough for the country’s own needs, as well as exporting, Angola now imports much of its food. The vast majority of the people depend on subsistence farming, but progress has been made in the production of coffee, some of which is exported. Much of Angola’s potential, in this sector, has not yet been fully exploited.


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Nigeria

Petroleum: Nigeria, a member of the organization of Petroleum Exporting Companies (OPEC), exports several types of crude oil: Bonny light oil, Forcados crude oil, Qua Ibo crude oil and Brass River crude oil. The U.S.A receives approximately 40% of Nigeria’s total oil exports while India is their second largest purchaser. India, as well as America, has drilling operations in Nigeria. Relations with the impoverished indigenous communities in the Niger Delta oil producing region are problematic. Multinational oil companies are trying to remedy this with the ‘Niger Delta Development Commission’ (NDDC), an organization formed in order to encourage social and economic development in this area.Given its massive oil and gas reserves, Nigeria’s economy has become Petroleum-based. Other sectors, in contrast, have been neglected and there is an ongoing need for greater diversification.

Agriculture: Corn, tapioca, cocoa, millet, palm oil, peanuts, rice, rubber sorgham and yams are all grown in Nigeria. Livestock production includes eggs, milk, beef, poultry, veal and pork, while fish too are caught. Productivity, however, is low, mainly as a result of inefficient and out-dated farming methods. As a result, Nigeria is no longer a major exporter of either cocoa and peanuts, nor rubber and palm oil. Rather than being a major exporter, Nigeria is now dependent on imported food products. That being said, the sector still contributes to over 26.8% of the GDP.

Industry: An overvalued Naira has resulted in relatively inexpensive imported goods and an erratic energy supply has made local manufacture extremely costly. Furthermore, an over-reliance on revenue generated by its vast petroleum resources has led to the neglect of not only agriculture, but also industry. It is thought that many factories continue to operate only because of the low cost of local labour.


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Ghana



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Botswana



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Equatorial Guinea



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